Recognition & Response - Intervention Hierarchy
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Intervention Hierarchy
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Teachers use an intervention hierarchy as part of the problem-solving process to make decisions about how to link focused interventions with assessment data at each tier.
Tier 1 (Universal Periodic Screening)
Teachers conduct universal periodic screening in key language and early literacy skills to (a) determine whether most children are learning in an expected manner and (b) identify children who need additional supports. In tier 1, universal periodic screening occurs within the first two months of the academic year and on a set schedule for all children in the class thereafter (three or four time each year). If most children (approximately 80%) meet early learning benchmarks, it can be assumed that the general education curriculum is of sufficient quality for most children. Adjustments to the general education curriculum to improve program quality may be required in classrooms in which the majority of children do not meet learning benchmarks. Children who do not demonstrate adequate progress in tier 1 will require focused interventions at tier 2.

Tier 2 (Group Interventions)
In tier 2, teachers provide standard research-based interventions that require minimum adjustments to classroom routines to targeted groups of children who do not make adequate progress in tier 1 (e.g., peer mediated strategies, curricular or environmental modifications, activity-based interventions). Group interventions, such as teaching phoneme segmenting to three or four children (asking “What’s the first sound of sssschool?”) with frequent opportunities to practice this skill through embedded classroom activities are selected from a set of standardized research-based interventions. As in tier 1, instructional decisions are guided by assessment data and the problem-solving process.

Tier 3 (Individualized Interventions and Referral)
In tier 3, teachers implement more intensive and individualized instruction for children who do not make adequate progress in tier 2 (e.g., prompting, modeling, levels of assistance, direct instruction). An example of a tier 3 intervention would be the teacher working individually with a child on phoneme blending (asking “What word do these sounds make: /p/ /ĭ/ /k/?” using direct instruction and prompting (“Pick”). As in the case of tier 2, instructional decisions will be developed through a collaborative problem-solving process and guided by assessment and standard research-based interventions. Children who do not make adequate progress in tier 3 may need to be referred for formal evaluation of learning disabilities or other special needs.

Next: Recognition: Screening, assessment and progress monitoring was developed and is managed by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, which is solely responsible for its content.
Funding was made possible by grants from the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation and the Cisco Systems Foundation.

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