Recognition & Response - Sample Research-Based Interventions
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Sample Research-Based Interventions Found to Improve
Vocabulary and Reading Skills in Pre-Kindergarteners

Dialogic Reading
Infusing joint reading experiences with dialogue in order to make these experiences more interactive; resulting in improved vocabulary, sound structure, concepts of print, knowledge of language and story structure
Whitehurst, G.J. Falco, F.L., Lonigan, J. E., Fischel, J. E., DeBaryshe, M.C., Valdez-Menchaca, M. C., & Caulfield, M. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Developmental Psychology, 24, 552-559.
Teaching children to segment words through repeating target words while moving an object for each sound to increase the child’s awareness of the phonemes in spoken words.
Blachman, B. A., Ball, E. W., Black, R., & Tangel, D. M. (2000). Excerpted from Road to the Code: A Phonological Awareness Program for Young Children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Sound Foundations
A phonemic awareness program using games, posters, worksheets and audiotapes to teach phoneme invariance or sound sharing, the concept that words can begin or end with the same sound resulting in increases in decoding skills, word identification and reading comprehension.
Byrne, B. & Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1995). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children: A 2-and 3- year follow-up and a new preschool trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 488-503.
The Lundberg Program/ "Phonemic Awareness in Young Children" (Marilyn Jager Adams)
A program for facilitating phonemic awareness through rhyming, segmenting and blending games and activities which has been found to increase letter knowledge, higher order language comprehension and phonemic skills.
Adams, M. J., Foorman, B. R., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1998). Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. A Classroom Curriculum. Baltimore. MD: Paul H. Brookes. was developed and is managed by the National Center for Learning Disabilities, which is solely responsible for its content.
Funding was made possible by grants from the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation and the Cisco Systems Foundation.

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